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Unanswered questions about Benue killings; herdsmen now bogeymen?

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Nomadic herdsmen were accused of killing at least 18 people, including two priests in Benue, central Nigeria on Tuesday. But there are unanswered questions about who was really behind the attack.

Tuesday’s attack in Mbalom, south of Makurdi, the capital, appeared at first sight to be the latest outbreak of retributive bloodshed between cattle herdsmen and farmers.

Recent months have seen an escalation in the decades-old dispute over fertile land and water that has left thousands dead and heaped pressure on Nigeria’s government to act.

On Wednesday, 11 ethnic Hausa traders were killed in Makurdi and two mosques were razed to the ground in violence sparked by the church attack.

The acting state governor said Benue was “under siege” while the Roman Catholic Diocese of Makurdi declared it was the goal of “jihadists to conquer Benue”.

But analysts said both the location and religious target of the attack were unusual and warned against generalising a complex conflict that is being increasingly politicised in the run-up to presidential polls in 2019.

“The key thing is that the pattern of Tuesday’s attack was different from prior attacks by the herdsmen,” Cheta Nwanze of SBM Intelligence, said.”So, to my mind at least, someone is taking advantage of the problem.”
“The key thing is that the pattern of Tuesday’s attack was different from prior attacks by the herdsmen,” Cheta Nwanze of SBM Intelligence, told AFP.

“So, to my mind at least, someone is taking advantage of the problem.”

Since 2017, 385 people have been killed in Benue state alone as a result of the herdsmen crisis, according to the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data (ACLED) project.

There was a sharp spike in the number of deaths at the beginning of this year, according to the US State Department-funded research.

Pressure is mounting on Nigeria’s President Muhammadu Buhari to contain the killings as the clashes over land escalate into a rift that is deepening along nominally religious lines.

Buhari has been accused of doing nothing to act because the cattle herders are his ethnic and religious kinsmen.

But in the absence of a strong police force and an efficient judicial system, there have been few arrests and even less information on the perpetrators.

“Herdsmen” have become the “ambiguous bogeyman”, said political analyst Chris Ngwodo, “an umbrella term for explaining the collapse of public order”.

– ‘Surprising’ attack –

Danladi Chiroma, from the Miyetti-Allah Cattle Breeders Association of Nigeria (MACBAN) which represents herders across the country, called Tuesday’s church attack “surprising”.

“No herders are allowed to graze in the area anymore. All herders are concentrated in the northern part of Benue,” he added.

“I’ve never heard of any incident in this area before then, that is so surprising such an attack could happen there.”

Danladi Chiroma, from the Miyetti-Allah Cattle Breeders Association of Nigeria (MACBAN) which represents herders across the country, called Tuesday’s church attack “surprising”.
“No herders are allowed to graze in the area anymore. All herders are concentrated in the northern part of Benue,” he added.
Chiroma said there was “obviously… a political agenda”.

Benue state lies in Nigeria’s so-called Middle Belt that separates the predominantly Muslim north from the largely Christian south.

The area has long been a hotbed of ethnic, sectarian and religious tensions between indigenous farming communities, who are mainly Christian, and the nomadic cattle herders, who are Muslim.

The crisis has shone a light on how Nigerian politicians play a vicious game of identity politics, pitting ethnicities against one other to drum up support, explained Idayat Hassan, director of the Centre for Democracy and Development West Africa.

“It’s an electioneering issue, it’s something to galvanise the campaign around,” she added.

“Ethnicity against ethnicity, villagers against villagers, it’s one of the biggest issues of the 2019 campaign.”

– Reprisal attacks –

The attack against the Hausa — who like the Fulani herders are Muslim and mainly from the north — underlines the dangers of inflammatory language and identity politics.

Rilwanu Adamu, an adviser to the Benue governor Samuel Ortom on Islamic affairs, said those targeted were neither farmers nor herders.

“We do our trade peacefully and take care of our families,” he said.

“That is why we don’t know why we should be targets,” he added, saying the community was now “living in fear”.

“There is so much tension ongoing in Makurdi right now,” added Garba Mohamed, who works at the Makurdi cattle market.

“They are targeting every Muslim person wether he’s Fulani or Hausa, they just go after you. There are no security forces to protect us.”

*Reported by AFP correspondents

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Calamity awaits South Africa if land reform fails

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Ramaphosa: Roots for land reform as most of South Africa’s land in the hands of a few

Ramaphosa: Roots for land reform as most of South Africa’s land in the hands of a few


Land reform has been a focus of debate in South Africa in 2018, which saw the government accelerating its programme unprecedentedly.

The year has been characterised by divisive and acrimonious debates on the reform, particularly on the suggestion for land expropriation without compensation. Despite the government’s comprehensive land reform program, the country has not made sufficient progress in addressing this issue, because “most of the country’s land remains in the hands of the few,” as President Cyril Ramaphosa put it recently.

Even as Ramaphosa exhorted South Africans in his Dec. 16 Reconciliation Day message to accept land reform as the primary instrument to bringing about long-term and sustainable reconciliation in the country, some of the luminaries of the ruling African National Congress (ANC) and analysts have warned of dire consequences if this issue is not urgently and effectively dealt with.

Some have accused the ANC of “bowing to the whims” of the radical Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) and Black First Land First (BLF). Both the EFF and BLF have vocally championed the land issue as part of radical economic transformation. They have argued that the failure to consolidate political will and to move to soberly address the very emotive land reform issue in South Africa could seriously impact the country and open the door to chaos and anarchy, with dire consequences for the southern African region and the continent. This is a critical question that raises the spectre of the unfinished transition from apartheid both in heated debates in the National Assembly, the lower house of parliament, and the National Council of Provinces, the upper house, as well as in numerous volatile public consultation events on the proposed amendment to section 25 of the constitution to allow land expropriation without compensation.

Some have accused the ANC of “bowing to the whims” of the radical Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) and Black First Land First (BLF). Both the EFF and BLF have vocally championed the land issue as part of radical economic transformation. They have argued that the failure to consolidate political will and to move to soberly address the very emotive land reform issue in South Africa could seriously impact the country and open the door to chaos and anarchy, with dire consequences for the southern African region and the continent.

Ernst Roets, deputy CEO of Afriforum, which represents a large constituency of the country’s white farmers, declared in his submission on the proposed amendment that the process was driven by “an oversimplified, twisted perspective of history.” He stated that it was premised on a false “ideological viewpoint that centralisation of the power in the State will be to the benefit of the public.” Roets said the land reform initiative “was built on the false argument that the eroding of property rights and tampering with healthy market principles will lead to economic growth.”

The vote by both houses of parliament in November in favour of amending the constitution for land expropriation without compensation, therefore, has raised the stakes and threatens to unravel the tenuous peace that underwrote the South African transition to democracy, according to Roets. Opponents to land reform also argue that the ongoing process has also opened the wounds of the country’s disturbing past and fuelled a dangerous discourse that will deeply polarise the society, threaten food security, and undermine nation-building and efforts to develop the economy.

However, for the South African government and the ANC, the land issue is cardinal, and it was at the ANC’s most recent congress that the party resolved that land expropriation without compensation would be a central plank of its project to address the injustices of the past and to transform South Africa. Injustice and dispossession of land among blacks were inflicted by colonial conquests across the world, and continue to play a role in many modern conflicts, Ramaphosa said. The president calls for a more just and equitable land reform or redistribution regime. “The equitable distribution of land has been a consistent call of the overwhelming majority of South Africans,” he said. “Access to land is a fundamental right of citizenship.” “It doesn’t just empower communities and workers. It enhances food security, especially for the rural poor,” Ramaphosa said. Access to and ownership of land open significant opportunities for those who have been marginalised, because it “enables people to gain and develop productive assets, and to participate more meaningfully in the economy,” according to the president.

Ramaphosa echoed the view of land reform supporters who insist that land reform is inextricably tied to nation-building, is key to further reconciliation in the country and central to eliminating inequality in the society. They say that far from being a measure that will fuel tensions or set race relations back, accelerated land reform has the potential to improve goodwill between the races in South Africa.One of the voices calling for a more deeply-contemplated approach to land reform is ANC stalwart Ben Turok. As one of the framers of the ANC Freedom Charter, and one of the party’s longest serving representatives in the National Assembly until 2015, Turok has been one of the party’s most incisive thinkers on transforming the economy and society. He cautions against a cavalier approach in trying to resolve the land issue.

Currently director of the Institute for African Alternatives, Turok said the debate on land reform has been deployed by numerous forces to mobilise their constituencies in the run-up to the national elections, scheduled for early 2019. “It is an election year and everyone is looking for votes, and this matter of land reform is an emotional issue so the ANC and EFF are raising it sharply,” Turok told Xinhua in an interview. However, the ANC stalwart believes that the decision to make the call for the amendment of section 25 of the constitution was not properly considered, as the current statute holds significant power which is under-utilised. He also believes that there is oversimplification, and that the question of land reform has numerous components, each of which has to be dealt appropriately. “Nobody has clear answers, as the land question is a complex issue with many factors,” Turok said.

This includes traditional leaders and their abuse of land and the corruption that goes with it and then the agricultural issue and the land tenure issue, he explained. Turok stated that the problem is that “the debate has been so simplified” and had drawn reactions of anger and insecurity from some of the white farmers because “the lunatic fringe of the EFF and BLF are threatening land occupation.” Part of the problem, he said, is the lack of political will, and “after 25 years in Parliament the ANC has failed to take action on land reform.” “There is a lot that can be done such as utilising peri-urban land that needs to be farmed, but is being used for speculation,” he stated.

Turok also pointed to “a looming danger in failing to confront traditional leaders.” He said firm action is needed to address the question of land reform and that this will call for assertive action from the head of state. “Cyril Ramaphosa will see he has to act, because failing to act will create a lot of negativity,” Turok added. Former Minister of Arts and Culture Z. Pallo Jordan advised that the issue be tackled in a focused manner. Jordan said in the latest edition of New Agenda periodical that “since the adoption of a resolution by ANC’s elective conference in December 2017 to change the constitutional provision requiring equitable compensation for land expropriated by the state, the dialogue on the specific constitutional clause as well as on land distribution and ownership in this country appears trapped between the extremes of hyperbole and double talk.”

Search for solutions to the land question in South Africa calls for depth and understanding, he noted. “Calm, deliberative debate, based on an appreciation of our country’s history, pre- and post-1652, the immense societal changes wrought by industrialisation, urbanization and economic integration, is vitally important at this moment because the decisions and actions taken will be of great consequence not only for South Africa, but also for the region and the continent,” Jordan said.

Political commentator Sipho Seepe, who was former vice chancellor of Vista University, takes a different approach, arguing that “the intended process is meant to correct the historical injustice and change the economic landscape.” “The anti-colonial struggle was like any revolution based on land, and this means that the South African transition would be incomplete without addressing this historic injustice which has correctly been described as South Africa’s original sin,” Seepe told Xinhua. He explained that land represents many things. “It is a signifier of who matters and controls the country’s economy. It is all encompassing speaking to the social, the cultural and the economic. It is not an accident that those without land are poor and marginalised. Politically this is an affront if one considers that indigenous people have been reduced to trespassers in the country of their birth.”

The volatility of the debate, he said, is driven by real factors and “the reason the land reform issue has become explosive is because it threatens to upend the economic relationship in the country.” Seepe noted that what is reflected as a “strong opposition” to land reform is actually “a manufactured strong opposition.” He believes that “the main obstacle to the implementation will be ironically the ruling party. “The ANC suffers from the need to be affirmed. It wants to please all people and as a result it sends mixed messages which make implementation impossibly difficult,” Seepe said. When asked what will happen if the process fails, he said South Africa can expect more land invasions and in time the people will turn against the ruling party. “The ANC will succeed in becoming enemy of the people with South Africa becoming ungovernable,” Seepe warned.

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Refusal to obey court order is corruption – Emir

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Emir of Kano

Emir of Kano

The Emir of Gummi, Justice Lawal Hassan Gummi (retd.), says refusal to obey a court order is another form of corruption, noting that government must exemplify the change it promised before expecting citizens to follow suit.

He said disrespect for the rule of law, bad governance, disobedience to court orders, non-compliance with electoral regulations by political parties, godfathers hijacking the electoral process and dwindling confidence in the justice system posed threats to Nigeria’s democracy.

The monarch, who was the keynote speaker at the Barewa Old Boys Association annual lecture, held at the Umaru Ali Shinkafi Polytechnic, Sokoto, spoke on the topic, ‘The challenges of the judiciary to democracy: The Nigeria perspective.’

The 97-year old college, located in Kaduna State, is reputed for producing five out of Nigeria’s past leaders, including General Yakubu Gowon, Alhaji Shehu Shagari, late Umaru Yar’adua, late Gen. Murtala Mohammed and the late Abubakar Tafawa Balewa.

It has also produced three Chief Justices of Nigeria, three Inspectors-General of Police and four Secretaries to the Government of the Federation.

But in his address, Gummi described the judiciary as the watchdog of democracy, without which “reckless marauders will attack the society,” adding that an insecure judiciary is one of the greatest threats to democracy.

He said, “Orders of court are disobeyed at will in the name of fighting corruption. No one institution, no matter how highly placed, should flout the laws of the land, not even under the guise of fighting corruption. Refusing to obey an order of court is another form of corruption in itself.

“The executive cannot play the role of both the accuser and that of the judge at the same time. It is an aberration in a democracy. National security cannot take precedence over the rule of law; rather, it should be guided by the rule of law.

“Any democracy where the executive tries to intimidate and harass the legislature and/or the judiciary into doing its bidding is a democracy under threat. In the same vein, it is not right in a democracy for the National Assembly to make governance difficult for the executive for pecuniary reasons. “We all agree that we need change as promised by the government, but that change must first begin with them, then, you and me.”

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Marriott International’s Three Loyalty Programs Unify

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A new era is beginning for the more than 110 million members of Marriott International’s (www.Marriott.com) award-winning loyalty programs – Marriott Rewards, which includes The Ritz-Carlton Rewards, and Starwood Preferred Guest (SPG). For the first time since Marriott International acquired Starwood Hotels and Resorts in 2016, the programs now operate under one set of unified benefits and one currency spanning the entire loyalty portfolio of 29 brands and more than 6,700 participating hotels in 130 countries and territories. Members are able to seamlessly earn and redeem across the entire loyalty portfolio and achieve Elite status faster with new Elite tiers. Members can now combine their separate program accounts into one at Marriott.com (www.Marriott.com) or SPG.com (www.Marriott.com/default.mi?program=spg&reset=true) to take advantage of everything Marriott International’s loyalty programs offer worldwide.

Together, the unified programs are richer. Members now earn on average 20 percent more points per dollar spent and have their Elite status recognized consistently at every hotel as they indulge in the elevated benefits they’ve earned. Additionally, members now have the added convenience to book stays throughout the portfolio on Marriott.com (www.Marriott.com), SPG.com(www.Marriott.com/default.mi?program=spg&reset=true), and the Marriott and SPG apps, or by contacting customer engagement centers.

“This is an exciting time for our loyalty members who now have endless inspiration to travel and experience the world to create memories that will last a lifetime,” said David Flueck, Senior Vice President, Global Loyalty, Marriott International. “We merged the incredible earning and redeeming power of Marriott Rewards with the phenomenal Elite benefits of SPG to create one of the richest travel loyalty programs with the most extraordinary global portfolio of hotels – from overwater bungalows, to mountainside ski resorts, to iconic urban landmarks.”

Earn Points and Achieve Elite Status Faster

As a result of the unified, single-currency programs, when members combine their accounts, their points balances will also combine, ending the need to transfer points between programs. For SPG members, their SPG points balance multiplied by three. All members earn 10 points for every dollar spent at all brands except Residence Inn, TownePlace Suites and Element which earn five points per dollar spent and Marriott Executive Apartments and ExecuStay properties which earn 2.5 points per dollar spent. In addition, for 2018, nights earned at Marriott Rewards and SPG hotels will also combine, potentially helping members achieve Elite status faster. Under the unified programs, all SPG members receive a new account number to align with the Marriott Rewards system. Members with multiple program accounts can choose to combine under their preferred account. The Marriott Rewards, The Ritz-Carlton Rewards and Starwood Preferred Guest (SPG) names will continue to live on until early 2019 until combining under a new brand name.

Under the unified programs, members now earn Silver Elite status after just ten nights annually, Gold Elite status after just 25 nights, Platinum Elite status after 50 nights and Platinum Premier Elite status after 75 nights. All Platinum Premier members surpassing 100 nights and $20,000 annual spend will enjoy the highest level of personalized service – the popular ambassador program – along with all the other benefits in that tier. Members who have achieved Lifetime status will continue to have their status recognized under the new Lifetime Elite tiers that will apply across the unified programs.

Redeem for Free Nights Easier

The unified programs introduce a new Free Night Award chart for redemptions across the entire loyalty portfolio. Nearly 70 percent of hotels now require the same or fewer points for a free stay than before. Further, members can save 25,000 points per night by redeeming for future category eight hotels priced in category seven until 2019, including coveted all-suites properties. The new Free Night Award chart launched with standard pricing, adding off-peak and peak pricing in 2019.

Earn Points and Access Benefits with Co-Brand Credit Card

With the new programs comes an array of refreshed benefits for co-branded credit cardholders that provide members with more benefits across the entire loyalty portfolio. Members of all three loyalty programs in the United Arab Emirates can take advantage of the Emirates NBD Starwood Preferred Guest® World MasterCard® with world-class banking partner Emirates NBD and new benefits offered within the region.

Experience rich rewards and best in class benefits with the Emirates NBD SPG® World MasterCard®. The ability to earn and redeem at our extraordinary collection of 6,700 hotels across 29 brands, an automatic upgrade to Gold Status, an annual anniversary Free Night Award Certificate upon renewal, and premium Wi-Fi are just a few of the exciting new opportunities that are now available to members.

With the Emirates NBD SPG® World MasterCard®, earn 6x points for each US dollar of eligible purchases made at participating SPG, Marriott Rewards, The Ritz-Carlton Rewards hotels, and 3x points for each US dollar of eligible purchases on your card. For more information, visit EmiratesNBD.com/spg.

More Travel Experiences

Marriott International’s loyalty programs offer members a holistic travel experience encompassing much more than hotel stays. Members have access to the wide collection of nearly 120,000 irresistible experiences in 1,000 global destinations on the company’s ever-expanding Moments platform – Marriott Moments, Marriott Rewards Moments and SPG Moments. These range from destination tours and day trips, to exclusive member-only events such as Super Fan Experiences during the Keith Urban Graffiti U World Tour, including autographed merchandise and backstage access, VIP access to sought after sporting events like the Super Bowl, music festivals like Coachella, and master classes with superstar chefs like Daniel Boulud in intimate settings.

More Benefits

In addition, other new benefits to highlight include:

All members now earn points for food and beverage, spa and other qualifying incidentals charged to their folio, rather than just the room rate.
Hotels throughout the loyalty portfolio now have no blackout dates for points redemptions.
Booking direct on any of Marriott International’s digital and mobile channels means members can take advantage of exclusive member-only rates and free Wi-Fi. In addition, both the Marriott and SPG apps offer mobile check-in and check-out and send members alerts when their room is ready. Members can also chat directly with hotel associates before, during, and after their stays using Mobile Requests, and use their smartphones as their room key at more than 1,000 hotels.

The information above represents a summary of certain features of Marriott International’s unified loyalty programs and is subject to the programs full terms and conditions.

To learn more about the unified programs and benefits, as well as combine accounts, please go to Marriott (www.Marriott.com) or SPG.com(https://www.marriott.com/default.mi?program=spg&reset=true).

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